Insect and arthropod venom contains proteins and peptides that can attach to the walls of cancer cells. Snakes and scorpions can also be packed inside nanoparticles and can be used as a potential cancer treatment.
Cancer is caused by mutations in the cells of the body. Mutant cells proliferate at a faster rate than normal cells and remove nutrients and oxygen from these cells. Some methods, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or a combination of these, are used to control the disease. Stressful treatments and overcrowding on the one hand and the loss of healthy and diseased cells on the other hand have made costly and costly treatments common.
Studies on the venom components of insects and arthropods show that low molecular weight peptides contain the highest molecular weight. Since most research has been done on high molecular weight peptides, most information has been obtained from low molecular weight peptides. The data obtained from NDBPS together with cDNA and RNA-seq gave us the most information about small peptides. Although several hundred toxins have been identified from scorpions, only a small amount of NDBPS has been identified. Thirteen to fifty-six major amino acids have been identified in the toxic compounds of the NDBPS group. Most of them have active cations and a flexible structure. They are present in random solutions of chlorine in aqueous solutions, but they are devoted to deposition in 1 to 2% of membrane separation media such as aqueous trifluoroethanol. Positive-charge NDBPS readily react with negative pregnant lipids. The membrane adhesion process causes membrane resistance and some other activities. This mechanism causes molecular and biological changes. Several NDBP multipurpose activities are displayed regardless of target cells. This is strongly opposed to the mechanism of action of the toxin, because the toxins are targeted against specific receptors (ion channels) of specific biological targets. Several related activities have been identified for NDBP, including antibacterial, antifungal, cytolytic, antiviral, anti-malarial, anti-cancer and immune activities. This discovery has made NDBP very interesting and promising. Finally, we can explain the various activities reported for components of the Scorpion toxin to design and develop new pharmaceutical drugs. Molecules that make promising and promising candidates are particularly covered.
The healing properties of bee venom without scientific investigation
Since ancient times, bee venom has been used in traditional medicine to treat various types of rheumatism. Although the venom of different bee species varies slightly, there are reports of successful treatment of venereal rheumatism. Its benefits to humans and animals are from ancient times. Bee venom treatments are often accompanied by changes in lifestyle, nutrition, or other changes that may be beneficial to some.
Therapeutic trials are often performed in countries with inexperienced procedures rather than difficult, but standardized treatment is less experienced in Western countries. Many successful treatments came after conventional treatment or surgery had failed.
Diseases and issues reported by patients or physicians and treated or treated with bee venom are listed below. This is not a confirmation or recommendation table for treatment. Biting should never be tested unless there is a bite sensitivity.
Venomous organisms are ubiquitous and many animal lineages have independently evolved complex compositions of bioactive molecules in their venoms for the purposes of prey capture and/or self-defence (Holford et al., 2018). Spider venom is a highly complex cocktail comprising inorganic salts, organic small molecules, small polypeptides as well as higher mass proteins and enzymes. Detailed reviews of spider venom composition and pharmacology can be found in and Typically, the small polypeptides are disulfde-rich molecules below 10 kDa in mass and comprise the majority of the venom, except for some membrane active antimicrobial peptides found in spiders from the sub-order Araneomorphae. Venom peptides are known for their potency and selectivity as compared with traditional small molecule drugs, making them desirable for therapeutic development, and spider venom peptides are no exception. Currently, most drugs used in clinical settings are small molecules. However, their limited eﬀectiveness combined with oﬀ-target activity leading to potentially severe side-eﬀects necessitates the development of a new generation of targeted, potent and efcacious therapeutics. Because of their robust selectivity, spider-venom peptides provide a source for true pharmaceutical innovation in this regard. Many spider venom peptides possess stringent biological activities (often with subtype selectivity at their targets, minimizing oﬀ-target eﬀects) at low nanomolar or even picomolar concentrations. However, it takes more than potency and selectivity to achieve eventual clinical success. In addition, drug candidates should have a reliable production method, physiological stability, desirable pharmacology, an applicable route of administration promoting bioavailability and suitable pharmacokinetics, as well as be safe for in vivo use with no observed toxic eﬀects. (Saez, N. J., & Herzig, V. (2019). Versatile spider venom peptides and their medical and agricultural applications. Toxicon, 158, 109-126.).
Scorpionism (scorpion sting) is a major public health issue in many regions of the world. Globally, 1.2 million scorpion stings happen annually, specifically in the tropical regions. Mortality due to these venomous stings is serious health problem in absence of suitable medication. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for preventive measures. Scorpion venom is composed of water, mucosa, enzymes, free amino acids, biogenic amines, neurotoxins, low molecular weight peptides, and proteins having maximum molecular activities. Neurotoxins are potent and are highly selective ligands for voltage-gated sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium ion channels. Therefore, they depict interesting compounds for the development of novel drugs, for example, drugs for cancer, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and analgesics. Scorpion venom has apoptogenic, cytotoxic, immunosuppressive, and antiproliferative effects. Therefore, scorpion venom can be utilized against various cancers like glioma, leukemia, human neuroblastoma, brain tumor, melanoma, prostate cancer, and breast cancer.
Figure-Mechanism of inhibition of growth of cancer cellsby scorpion venom.( Tobassum, S., Tahir, H. M., Arshad, M., Zahid, M. T., Ali, S., & Ahsan, M. M. (2018). Nature and applications of scorpion venom: an overview. Toxin Reviews, 1-12.)
Scorpion venom components have multifaceted orientation against bacterial, viral, fungal infections and other neuronal disorders. They can modulate the ion channels (K+, Na+, Cl−, Ca2+) of our body and this concept has been hypothesized in formulating pharmaceuticals. The triumphant achievement of these venom components as formulated anticancer agent in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials allure researchers to excavate beneficial venom components prohibiting DNA replication in malignant tumor cells.