Application Despite the fact that we live in an age of new and advanced technologies to unveil the underlying disease mechanisms and design new drugs, it is one of the biggest challenges worldwide in the treatment of infectious diseases. Many antibiotics have been used to inhibit the growth and kill germs, but the development of resistance and the appearance of side effects have severely restricted the use of these agents. However, nanoscale biological compounds have unique physico-chemical properties that have proven in recent years the efficacy of several classes of nanocarriers and antimicrobial (NP) nanoparticles for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of nanoparticles as markers in molecular diagnostics instead of current markers has increased the sensitivity, selectivity and multidimensional capacity of identification. In this article, we review recent efforts by researchers to identify and treat infectious diseases using antimicrobial nanoparticles and drug nanocarriers. Biotics in the detection and treatment of infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic factors such as viruses (HIV, hepatitis C and dengue fever), parasites (malaria, trypanosomes and leishmania), bacteria (tuberculosis and cholera) and fungi. Infectious microorganisms spread throughout the body after invasion by the circulatory system, then are eliminated by macrophages that are found in the main organisms of the body such as the liver, spleen and bone marrow. However, most microorganisms resist macrophages and lead to infectious diseases through one of the phagosome-escape mechanisms, preventing lysosome-phagosome fusion and resistance to oxidative and non-oxidative deletion. These diseases are also known as communicable diseases due to their ability to spread from one person to another (malaria and tuberculosis) and sometimes from one species to another (influenza). As infectious diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide, especially in developing countries, they pose a serious threat to human health.
In the early twentieth century, infectious diseases were the leading cause of death worldwide. The decrease in the prevalence of infectious diseases and the deaths from these diseases in the last century is due to the recognition of antimicrobial agents. The use of antibiotics began with the commercial production of penicillin in the late 1980s and was claimed to be a major breakthrough until the 1990s, until newer and more powerful antibiotics were introduced. Despite extensive research and extensive investment, along with the development of antimicrobial drugs, resistance to these agents has expanded. Increasing bacterial resistance has made use of the strongest antibiotics ineffective (Figure 1). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened to overcome drug resistance by discovering newer antibiotics and modifying existing drugs chemically. However, resistance to antibiotics has reached a critical level today, and unfortunately there is no guarantee that the development of new antimicrobials will overcome the rapid and rapid spread of resistance in time. For example, drug-resistant infections are on the rise in hospitals and the community, posing a serious threat to human health. So challenging treatment of infectious diseases requires long-term solutions.
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